1859: Italian Campaign
In April 1859, Austria declared war on the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. Napoleon III, as had been agreed the previous year, supported Victor-Emmanuel II, the King of Piedmont-Sardinia, and his prime minister, Cavour, in their plans to unify Italy. However, despite providing military assistance, the difficulty of the victories of his French troops in the Battles of Magenta and Solferino worried Napoleon III who arranged the Villafranca Armistice on 12 July 1859, and then the Treaty of Zurich on 10 and 11 November with the Austrian Emperor. Disappointed by these agreements, Cavour resigned. One year later, Savoy and the Comté of Nice were annexed by France, and in 1861 Victor-Emmanuel II became the first King of a unified Italy.